What do you need to know about allergy?


What is Allergy?

Allergy occurs when a person’s immune system reacts to substances in the environment that are harmless for most people. These substances are known as allergens and are found in house dust mites, pets, pollen, insects, moulds, foods and some medications.


What happens when you have an allergic reaction?

When a person who is allergic to a particular allergen comes into contact with it, an allergic reaction occurs. This begins when the allergen enters the body, triggering an antibody response. The antibodies attach themselves to special cells, called mast cells. When the pollen comes into contact with the antibodies, the mast cells respond by releasing certain substances, one of which is called histamine. When the release of histamine is due to an allergen, the resulting swelling and inflammation is extremely irritating and uncomfortable.

The most common causes of allergic reactions world wideare:

  • Dust mites
  • Pollen
  • Foods such as peanuts, cow’s milk, seafood and eggs
  • Cats and other hairy animals such as dogs.
  • Moulds
  • Medications


What is Atopy?

Atopy is the genetic tendency to develop allergic diseases. When atopic people are exposed to allergens they can develop an immune reaction that leads to allergic reactions.

This can then cause symptoms in the:

  • Nose and/or eyes – hay fever (allergic rhinitis / conjunctivitis)
  • Skin – eczema, hives (urticaria)
  • Lungs – asthma